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Pomeranian Heat 

When you have a female Pom, it will be important to understand the heat cycle. Your little Pomeranian is going to go through quite a phase each time she enters her cycle (called the estrous cycle). Although the discharge itself is not as pronounced as it is with larger dog breeds, there are other changes in the body and with behavior due to fluctuating hormones.
First Heat

If your goal is to have your female Pom spayed before the first heat, you will want to have this done early. A Pomeranian can enter her first cycle as young as 4 months old. However, the average age range for this is 6 months to 9 months. Some can be late bloomers, entering as late as 1-year-old, although this is rare.

Essentially, the element to know is that this will occur sometime within the first year. Since a Pom is not an adult until the one year mark, the heat cycle will begin in puppyhood.

There may be signs that occur right before the cycle. For some dogs, these signs develop 1 day to 1 week before the actual heat. Without knowing to look for them, they can easily be missed:
  • A swollen vulva (it may be only slightly swollen at this time)
  • Mammary glands enlarge. You may be used to seeing your Pom with a pink flat belly, however teats will begin to pop up slightly in the upper chest.
Female Pomeranian in basket
Full Heat

Once a Pomeranian is in full heat, physical signs are very apparent:
  • A fully swollen vulva (often puffed out 3 times the normal size)
  • Teats are now showing quite visibly
  • There will be a discharge; for toy breeds it is usually red/pink and then it changes to pink after about 1 week. It may turn to a yellow at a certain point, usually 10 to 12 days into the cycle and this is the time that the ability to become impregnated is most high. 
When the bleeding stops, a dog may still be in heat for approximately 1 week and therefore precautions must still be taken to prevent unplanned pregnancy

There may be behavioral changes:
  • She may begin to display humping behavior; the urge to do this can be very strong and therefore she may hump other dogs or inanimate objects.
  • She may lick herself quite a bit (self-grooming).
  • She may show nesting behaviors. This includes gathering toys and other objects, placing them in a “safe” area. She may try to hide food there as well.
  • She may either want more attention or want to be more isolated.
Studies are inconclusive as to whether a dog feels discomfort or pain during this time. It is known, of course, that uterus contracts as it sheds its lining, just as with female humans, and therefore it is theorized that there is some discomfort. Aside from nesting, this may be one reason why a Pomeranian in heat may have less playful behavior and may want to rest alone more often than normal.

How Long This Lasts

It is much too general a statement to say that canines enter heat twice per year, because the length of the cycle can vary quite a bit. Typically it will last for 3 weeks, however any range from 2 weeks to 4 weeks in considered normal. A Pomeranian will have a heat cycle every 5.5 months to every 8 months. Therefore, it may occur either 2 or 3 times per year.

For example, if a Pomeranian were to have her first heat in January and it was to occur again exactly 6 months later, the next would come in June…and then again in the following January. This gives you 2 heats per year.

When counting in-between cycles, one counts from the first day of heat to the first day of the following heat.
Ability to Become Conceive

During the first heat cycle, eggs are not fully mature; therefore while a Pom can be mounted (and many times she will not protest), rarely will it result in pregnancy. It is very strongly suggested to not even consider breeding a female until after the age of 2 (although the AKC does accept litters from females between the ages of 8 months and 12 years). 

The important element to note is that the scent that emits from her will be able to be picked up by male dogs…and not just those in your neighborhood. It is theorized that un-neutered male dogs can pick up a female’s scent up to 3 miles ( 4.82 km) away.
For this reason, it will be imperative to protect your Pomeranian during this time. There should be zero play dates with un-neutered male dogs. It is suggested to take a break from visiting any dog parks or other areas where there may be males.

In addition, some blood will be excreted along with urine each time your dog urinates. This leaves a heavy scent in that area that can last for quite a while. With this in mind, be careful each time that you bring your Pom outside for bathroom needs…

A male may be wandering around that area, in anticipation for her next arrival. Never misjudge the desire and urges of an un-fixed male, no matter what the breed or size of the dog.
female Pomeranian outside and happy
If you are outside with your Pom and a male dog approaches, it is best to pick up your Pomeranian and bring her back inside.  

For exercise and play time outside, it is recommended to do this in a safe, enclosed environment such as a fenced in back yard. And if outside of that area, of course please keep your Pom on harness and leash.

Split Heat

This is not terribly uncommon and if it is to happen, it usually occurs with very young females or with senior Poms. When this occurs, the dog will appear to be entering her heat cycle...but it will only last for a few days (4 or 5 days). It will then stop and in 3 to 4 weeks she will enter a full heat. In most cases, conception cannot take place during the short phase of this.

For most Poms, having a split heat 1 or 2 times does not call out for medical intervention. However, if this happens frequently, the dog should have a complete checkup to rule out hypothyroidism or other possible underlying medical conditions.
Red Flags - Lumps Found During or After a Heat Cycle

If you notice lumps on your Pomeranian that appear around the nipples during or after a heat cycle (in the mammary area around the teats), this often is a strong indication of mammary gland hyperplasia. Mammary gland hyperplasia is an excessive growth of mammary epithelial cells. The difference between mammary gland hyperplasia and canine breast cancer is that with mammary gland hyperplasia, the cells are benign, with cancer the cells are malignant.

The only method to determine if these lumps are cancerous or non-cancerous is to surgically remove every lump for examination. For example, if a Pomeranian has 5 lumps, after removal and examination, a veterinarian may find that 4 are benign and one is malignant.

With the Pomeranian breed, 50% of tumors are found to be malignant, therefore paying attention to lumps that appear around the nipples (teats) at any time - and most noticeable during or right after the heat cycle, is vital to your Pom's health.
keeping female Pomeranian safe
Keeping Your Pom Comfortable

It is best to provide your Pom with what she appears to be wanting (aside from allowing her to mate with a male!)… If she appears to be a bit moody and wants to retreat, allow her to do so.

Some like to have their doggie bed placed in a quiet corner of a room, near her humans, but far enough away to feel un-bothered. If she shows nesting behaviors, as long as she does not take anything unsafe, allow her to gather toys.

There is usually a light flow of discharge, however over the course of a couple of weeks there will be a build up of fluids on carpeting, flooring or any surfaces that the Pom rests on (bed, sofa, etc. ) 
Many owners find it easy to keep a doggie diaper on their females as opposed to cleaning up the flooring and washing furniture and cushions that have any blood and discharge seeped into the fabric.

Spaying stops the heat cycle from occurring. While there will always be those that say that spraying is not a good idea, there are many benefits that can literally extend your Pomeranian's life span. Spaying reduces the chances of mammary cancer and ovarian cancer and the earlier it is done, the better the chances are that a dog will not develop cancer.

A dog cannot be spayed while in the heat cycle or shortly afterward. If any owner wants to have this done, it should be scheduled at least 6 weeks from the end of a cycle.  

It is not uncommon to have this procedure done even before the first heat arrives and studies show that doing this early may prevent possible future health issues even more so.


Canines often do not cease having heat cycles as they become older. There may be a longer duration between them and/or they may not last as long. However, most Poms, if un-spayed can actually remain fertile throughout the senior years. 
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